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Banning Refrigerants 134a and 410a in New York State & Exploring Alternatives with Heat Pump Water Heaters


New York State (NYS) is known for its commitment to sustainability and environmental conservation. In line with its ambitious climate goals, NYS has taken a significant step towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions by disallowing the sale of equipment using refrigerants like 134a and 410a as of January 1, 2024. This move not only aligns with the state’s dedication to combating climate change but also presents an opportunity to explore alternative refrigerants, particularly in the context of heat pump water heaters.

Banning High-GWP Refrigerants in NYS

The decision to ban refrigerants like R-134a and R-410a in NYS is rooted in the need to reduce the state’s carbon footprint and curb the release of potent greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. These refrigerants have high GWP values, meaning they trap heat in the atmosphere and contribute to global warming when they leak or are not properly disposed of.

NYS has recognized the importance of addressing these refrigerants’ environmental impacts and has implemented regulations to phase them out starting January 1, 2024. This includes restrictions on the use of these refrigerants in new equipment and the promotion of more environmentally friendly alternatives.

Heat Pump Water Heaters and Alternative Refrigerants

Heat pump water heaters, which are an excellent example of cleaner and more efficient technologies, use refrigerants to transfer heat from the air or ground into the water. This makes them a highly efficient and energy-saving option for water heating.

As NYS moves away from high-GWP refrigerants, however, it is crucial to consider alternative refrigerants for heat pump water heaters. Here are some viable options:

  • R-32: R-32 is a low-GWP refrigerant that has gained popularity as an alternative to R-410a. It has a GWP approximately one-third that of R-410a, making it a more environmentally friendly choice. Many manufacturers are already using R-32 in their heat pump water heater systems.
  • Hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs): HFOs are a new class of refrigerants designed to have low GWP values. Variants like R-1234yf and R-1234ze have been developed as replacements for high-GWP refrigerants in various applications, including heat pump water heaters.
  • Ammonia (NH3): Ammonia is another natural refrigerant with zero GWP and excellent thermodynamic properties. Although less common in residential applications, ammonia-based heat pump water heaters are highly efficient and environmentally friendly.
  • CO2 (Carbon Dioxide): Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a natural refrigerant with zero ozone depletion potential and a GWP of 1. CO2 heat pump water heaters are highly efficient and have minimal environmental impact. They are gaining traction as a sustainable choice in NYS and beyond.

Along these lines, RP Fedder now offers the Aegis CO2 Heat Pump Hot Water Heater, which utilizes R744 – carbon dioxide – as a refrigerant.

The Environmental Sustainability of R744

  • Low Global Warming Potential (GWP): One of the most compelling aspects of R744 is its incredibly low GWP value of 1. This means that when CO2 is released into the atmosphere, it has a minimal impact on global warming. In contrast, many traditional refrigerants, such as hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), have GWPs in the thousands.
  • Zero Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP): R744 does not deplete the ozone layer, making it an environmentally friendly choice. This stands in stark contrast to older refrigerants like chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and some hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) that have been phased out due to their ozone-depleting properties.
  • Natural and Abundant: CO2 is a natural refrigerant that is abundantly available. It is a byproduct of various industrial processes and can be sourced sustainably. This reduces the reliance on synthetic and potentially harmful refrigerants.

The Safety and Energy Efficiency of R744

  • Non-Flammable: R744 is non-flammable, making it a safe choice for refrigeration systems. Unlike some other refrigerants that can pose fire hazards, CO2 enhances safety.
  • High Energy Efficiency: CO2-based refrigeration systems, particularly transcritical systems, can achieve high levels of energy efficiency. These systems are widely used in supermarkets, industrial refrigeration, and heat pump applications. Their efficiency helps reduce energy consumption and operating costs.
  • Efficient Heat Pump Applications: R744 is increasingly used in heat pump systems, where it efficiently captures and transfers heat from one location to another. This is particularly important in heating and cooling applications, contributing to reduced energy consumption and carbon emissions.

Challenges and Considerations of R744

While R744 is a highly sustainable refrigerant, it’s not without challenges. One of the biggest considerations that your clients may be concerned with involves upfront costs. The initial investment in CO2-based systems may be higher than other systems, but the long-term energy savings and sustainability benefits more than justify these costs.

All that said, R744, or carbon dioxide, is a shining example of a sustainable refrigerant that aligns with New York State’s efforts to combat climate change. Its low GWP, zero ODP, safety, and energy efficiency attributes make it a preferred choice for various applications, including heat pump water heaters.

The Aegis CO2 Heat Pump Hot Water Heater is available in different configurations, including Water Source, Air Source, and Air Source with Cool Recovery. This versatility allows you to choose the option that best suits your clients’ specific needs and infrastructure. Aegis is capable of operating continuously across a wide range of outdoor ambient conditions. This reliability ensures consistent performance even in challenging weather conditions. Furthermore, it can provide high-temperature domestic hot water (DHW) supply, making it suitable for various commercial applications.

Overall, the Aegis CO2 Heat Pump Hot Water Heater is an excellent choice for those looking to comply with New York State refrigerant regulations while also prioritizing environmental sustainability and efficient water heating solutions for their clients.


Banning refrigerants like R-134a and R-410a in NYS represents a significant stride towards a more sustainable and environmentally responsible future. Heat pump water heaters, which are efficient and versatile, play a pivotal role in this transition. The Aegis CO2 Heat Pump Hot Water Heater available from RP Fedder utilizes NYS-compliant R744 and represents not only a viable – but an impressive – hot water heating alternative.